Today, Hagia Sophia is the third building in the same place built with a different architectural understanding than the previous ones. It was built by Emperor Justinianus to Anthemius of Tralles (Aydın) and Isidoros of Miletos (Balat).
Rebuilt as a mosque
Its construction began in 532 and was completed in five years, and was opened for worship at a grand ceremony in 537. It was rebuilt as a mosque with the conquest of Istanbul by Fatih Sultan Mehmed.
It continued its existence with the addition of Ottoman architectural elements and became a museum in 1935.
There are 104 columns, some of which were brought from ancient cities, in Hagia Sophia, known for the Emperor Gate, Beautiful Gate, and Marble Gate. The “Omphalion” section, where the emperors are crowned, stands out with its marble workmanship like these columns.
Apart from its awe-inspiring architecture; It is also famous for its mosaics made with gold-plated, silver-plated, glass, terracotta, and colored stone. The original ceiling mosaics from the 6th century fascinate with their floral and geometric motifs. Mosaics after the ban on icons in the 8th century should also be seen in the mosaic of the Virgin Mary, the Prophet Gabriel, the Prophet Michael and the Baptist Yahya, and the Deisis Stage mosaic. The Mosaic Tughra of Sultan Abdulmecid was built during the repairs of the Fossati Brothers between 1847 and 1849.
Eight large circular calligraphy plates added during the Ottoman period are the work of the famous calligrapher cadilesker Mustafa Izzet Efendi during the reign of Sultan Abdülmecid.
The cubes, which are made of two monolithic marbles on the side naves and can hold an average of 1250 liters of liquid, Sultan III. It was brought from the ancient city of Bergama during the Murad period. In addition to the Sultan Mahmud Library, pulpit, mihrab, sultan’s office, and sermon chairs are also worth seeing.
Has 4 minarets
The four minarets, which were known to be built by Mimar Sinan, two of the Hagia Sophia, the Sıbyan School fountain, the temporal office, the public buildings, the buttresses, the treasury building, and the imaret house, also increase the magnificence of the building.