Tile art; It is a work of art made from earth, glazed and embroidered. More generally, it is the name given to the ceramics obtained by cooking porcelain. The soil is shaped before cooking is done. Then step by step colors and patterns are added. Tile, which is referred to as ”kaşi” in Central Asia and Iran, got this name because it came from China. China has the best and quality examples of tile art in the world.
The tile decoration tradition that started to be seen in the buildings belonging to the Karahanli period, which established the first Muslim Turkish State, shows that Turkish Tile Art has a history of over a thousand years. Tile decorations were continued by the Great Seljuks and Anatolian Seljuks, and the Seljuks decorated many mosques, madrasahs, caravanserais, palaces, tombs and similar works that they built in the places they dominated. After the dissolution of the Anatolian Seljuk State, the effort to continue the tile tradition reached the Beyliks established in Anatolia and finally a new period started with the foundation of the Ottoman State. Important works belonging to the Principalities period are found in the Tiled Kiosk Museum in Istanbul and the Berlin State Museum.
HOW TO MAKE TILES?
Soil dough is made by combining kaolin, chalk, sand and a few similar substances. It is mixed until it reaches the mud consistency. Then, with a filter, it is cleaned and foreign materials such as stones are left out. Whichever shape you want to give the prepared dough is arranged. Vases or panels are among the most preferred. The shapes left to dry are primed after they are hard enough. The purpose of the lining is to make the item white. When the desired whiteness is achieved, the biscuit part is passed.
Biscuit is the first firing of the primed soil at 900 degrees. The biscuit process is carried out approximately 24 hours slowly. After cooking, the surface of the article is sanded. Then it is covered with paper. On the coated paper, the pattern is drawn with a black pencil. The pattern on the paper is marked on the piece by opening the needle holes. It is made clear with the help of coal powder.
The pattern is passed over using black tile paint. Then it is filled with the color that the artist wants. The piece is glazed behind it. After the process is completed, it is started to cook again. Tile, which is cooked slowly, is cooled slowly so that it does not crack after cooking.